NCERT Class 11 History (THEMES IN WORLD HISTORY) Solutions / Notes : CHAPTER-1 From the Beginning of Time

   

NCERT Class 11 History (THEMES IN WORLD HISTORY) Solutions / Notes : CHAPTER-1 From the Beginning of Time

NCERT Class 11th History Solution Notes in this note you can learn easily the concept of Chapter-1: From the Beginning of Time    . Here We are giving you solutions in question answer type so that your concept and doubts will become more clear.


NCERT Class 11 History

(THEMES IN WORLD HISTORY)


Chapter-1 : From the Beginning of Time:-

NCERT Class 11th History Solution Notes in this note you can learn easily the concept of Chapter-1: From the Beginning of Time    . Here We are giving you solutions in question answer type so that your concept and doubts will become more clear.

 

Question 1. Look at the diagram showing the positive feedback mechanism on page 13. (See NCERT Textbook). Can you list the inputs that went into tool making? What were the processes that were strengthened by tool making?



Answer: After going through the positive feedback mechanism following points can be inferred:

(a) Inputs that helped in tool making:

Increased brain size and capacity of brain

Upright walking

Visual surveillance long distance

Walking while foraging and hunting.

(b) The processes that were strengthened by tool making:

Upright walking

Increase in size and capacity of brain

Visual surveillance, long distance walking while foraging and hunting.


Question 2. Humans and mammals such as monkeys and apes have certain similarities in behaviour and anatomy. This indicates that humans have possibly evolved from the . apes. List these resemblances in two columns under the headings of

(a) behaviour and

(b) anatomy.

Are there any differences that are noteworthy?

Answer: Similarities

(a) Behaviour:

Humans

Monkeys and Apes

1. Humans can climb on trees.

Monkeys and apes can also climb on trees.

2. Mothers give birth to their young ones.

Monkeys also give birth to their young ones.

3. They can walk long distances.

They can also walk long distances.

 

(b) Anatomy:

Humans

Monkeys and Apes

1. Humans are vertebrates.

1. They are also vertebrates.

2. Humans have two feet and two hands.

2. Monkeys and apes are also quadrupeds.

Question 3. Discuss the arguments advanced in favor of the regional continuity model of human origins. Do you think it provides a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer: According to the Regional Continuity Model, the Homo sapiens evolved in different regions at different rates into modern humans. So there was a variation in the first appearance of modern humans in different parts of the world. It was based on the regional differences in the features of present day humans. The advocates of this view found that the dissimilarities are due to the differences between the Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis populations of the same regions.

The Regional Continuity Model does not give a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence.


Question 4. Which of the following do you think is best documented in the archaeological record: (a) gathering, (b) tool making and (c) use of fire?

Answer: Tool making is documented in the archaeological record.

 

Question 5. Discuss the extent to which: (a) hunting and (b) constructing shelters would have been facilitated by the use of language: What other modes of communication could have been used for these activities?

Answer: (a) Use of language helped hunting activities of human beings in numerous ways:

Now people are in a position of organizing and managing hunting expeditions

They are now free to exchange their ideas about different animals in different regions.

They could now discuss the nature and behavior of animals.

They could now discuss regarding the types of tools to be used.

(b) Language helped in constructing shelters for early humans in the following ways:

Now people could discuss regarding secure and safe places for the construction of shelters.

Now people could gather information about the materials used in the construction of shelter.

Information regarding resources in and around their surroundings can be easily obtained.

They were now in a position to discuss the means to protect their shelters in severe conditions.

Other modes: Signs, symbols, cave paintings, engraving on walls and on the ceilings of caves were the other modes of communication used for various activities

 

Question 6. Choose any two developments each from Timelines 1 and 2 at the end of the chapter and indicate why these are significant.

Timeline 1 (mya)

36-24 mya

Primates; Monkeys in Asia and Africa

24 mya

(Superfamily) Hominoids; Gibbons, Asian orang-utan and African apes (gorilla, chimpanzee and bonobo or ‘pygmy’ chimpanzee)

6.4 mya

Branching out of hominoids and hominids

5.6 mya

Australopithecus

2.6-2.5 mya

Earliest stone tools

2.5-2.0 mya

Cooling and drying of Africa, resulting in decrease in woodlands and increase in grassland

2.5-2.0 mya

Homo

2.2 mya

Homo habilis

1.8 mya

Homo erectus

1.3 mya

Extinction of Australopithecus

0.8 mya

‘Archaic’ sapiens, Homo heidelbergensis

0.19-0.16 mya

Homo sapiens (Modern humans)

 

Timeline 2 (years ago)

Earliest evidence of burials

300,000

Extinction of Homo erectus

200,000

Development of voice box

200,000

Archaic Homo sapiens skull in the Narmada valley, India

200,000­
130,000

Emergence of modern humans

195,000­
160,000

Emergence of Neanderthals

130,000

Earliest evidence of hearths

125,000

Extinction of Neanderthals

35,000

Earliest evidence of figurines made of fired clay

27,000

Invention of sewing needles

21,000

Answer: Developments from Timeline-1

The evidence of the first Hominids was found about 5.6 mya. The Hominids evolved from Hominoids. They had some common features. Hominids had larger brain than Hominoids. Hominids had an upright posture and bipedal locomotion. There was a marked difference in regard to hand. It helped them in use of tools.

Around 2.5 mya, large parts of the earth were covered with snow. There were major changes in the environment. It led to expansion of grassland.

Developments from Timeline-2

Around 200,000 years ago, the evolution of the voice box took place. After the evolution of voice box, now the man was about to speak and express his views.

About 27,000 years ago, the earliest evidence of figurines made of fired clay was also found. The invention of sewing machines made the life of people more comfortable.



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